- Key research on employment – synthesis note
- Introductory resources, key links and syntheses
- The relationships between growth, employment and poverty reduction
- Constraints and solutions to employment in developing countries
- Job quality: promoting ‘decent work’ and productive employment
- Interventions to support employment creation
- Links to related DCED webpages and resources
Key research on employment – synthesis note
For a summary of key research on employment, download our Synthesis Note.
- World Employment and Social Outlook.Trends 2015, ILO, 2015.
- Jobs and Development webpage in the World Bank Group
- Meeting the Youth Employment Challenge in Africa – Six Myths, Blog post by Louise Fox, 2014.
- Job Creation and Local Economic Development, OECD, 2014.
- World of Work 2014: Developing with Jobs, ILO, 2014.
- Promoting Productive Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa. A Review of the Literature, UNU-MERIT, 2013.
- 2013 World Development Report on Jobs, The World Bank, 2013.
- IFC Jobs Study. Assessing Private Sector Contributions to Job Creation and Poverty Reduction, IFC, 2013.
- Growth and Employment in the Post-2015 Agenda: Messages from a Global Consultation, UNDG, 2013.
- Africa at Work. Job Creation and Inclusive Growth, McKinsey Global Institute, 2012.
- Jobs and Labour Markets in Developing Countries. Policy Issues and Priorities, Steven Miller, 2012.
The relationships between growth, employment and poverty reduction
- Working for economic transformation, ODI/ECDPM, 2015.
- What do empirical studies say about economic growth and job creation in developing countries?, EPS PEAKS, 2013.
- Jobs, growth and poverty: What do we know, what don’t we know, what should we know?, ODI, 2011.
- Understanding the relationship between economic growth, employment and poverty reduction, OECD, 2009.
Employment and poverty reduction
- Wage labor, agriculture-based economies and pathways out of poverty. Taking stock of the evidence, USAID, 2015.
- Creating jobs that reduce poverty: A Research Agenda on Developing-Country Gazelles, RTI, 2012.
- The role of employment and labour markets in the fight against poverty, OECD, 2009.
- Does employment really matter for poverty reduction?, The World Bank, 2007.
Country Assessments and sectoral employment studies
- Manufacturing progress? Employment creation in Sri Lanka, ODI/ECDPM, 2015.
- Understanding Mozambique’s growth through an employment lens, UNU-WIDER, 2015.
- Work in Progress. Productive employment and transformation in Uganda, ODI/ECDPM, 2015.
- Unleashing the Employment Potential of the Middle East and North Africa, The World Bank Group, 2015.
- Which firms create the most jobs in developing countries? Evidence from Tunisia, The World Bank, 2014.
- Rural Wages in Asia, ODI, 2014.
- Structural change in Ethiopia: An employment perspective, The World Bank, 2014.
- Challenges for achieving job-rich and inclusive growth in Mongolia, ILO, 2011.
- Are labour-intensive industries generating employment in India? Evidence from firm level surveys, The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Vol 52/3, 2009.
Constraints and solutions to employment in developing countries
The Impact of the Business Environment
- Investment Climate Reforms and Job Creation in Developing Countries; What Do We Know and What Should We Do? The World Bank, September 2014.
- Employment, unemployment and underemployment in Africa, UNU-WIDER, 2014.
- Stunted growth: Why don’t African firms create more jobs?, World Bank Policy, 2013.
- Business environment, economic agglomeration and job creation around the world, The World Bank, 2013.
- Constrained Gazelles. High Potentials in West Africa’s Informal Economy, ISS, 2012.
- Big constraints to small firms’ growth? Business environment and employment growth across firms. Economic Development and Cultural Change Vol. 59(3), 2011.
- The impact of investment climate on employment growth: Does Sub-Saharan African mirror other low-income regions?, The World Bank, 2010.
- The effect of business registration reform on entrepreneurial activity in Mexico, The World Bank, 2008.
The role of structural transformation and industrial development
- Topic Guide: Urbanisation and Economic Development: Private Sector Linkages, EPS PEAKS / ODI, February 2016.
- What are the features of urbanisation and cities that promote productivity, employment and salaries? EPS PEAKS, 2014.
- Aid, Employment and Poverty Reduction in Africa, UNU WIDER, 2014.
- Non-farm Entrepreneurship in Rural Africa: Patterns and Determinants, IZA, 2014.
- Kingombe Structural transformation and employment creation: the role of growth facilitation policies in Sub-Sahara Africa, ODI, 2012.
- Productivity Growth and Job Creation in the Development Process of Industrial Clusters, Japan National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 2012.
- Rural Development Strategies as a Path to Decent Work and Reducing Urban Informal Employment: The Case of South Africa, ILO, 2012.
- Africa-BRICS Cooperation. Implications for growth, employment and structural transformation in Africa, UNECA, 2013.
The Potential of Skills and Innovation
- The impact of SENAI’s vocational training programme on employment, wages, and mobility in Brazil, IRIBA, 2014.
- Innovation and productivity change in low-income countries. A brief overview of policy and academic debates, ODI, 2013.
- Skills Development Pathways in Asia, OECD/ LEED, 2013.
- Innovation, Employment and Skills in Advanced and Developing Countries. A Survey of the Literature, IZA, 2012.
Small and large enterprises in job creation
- Is Small Beautiful? Small Enterprise, Aid and Employment in Africa. African Development Review, 2015.
- Small and medium-sized enterprises and decent and productive employment creation, ILO, 2015.
- Who creates jobs in developing countries?, in Small Business Economics, 2014. Article Abstract
- Firm Dynamics, Productivity Growth and Job Creation in Developing Countries: The role of Micro and Small Enterprises, The World Bank, 2013.
- Is Small Beautiful? Small Enterprise, Aid and Employment in Africa, UNU-WIDER, 2012.
- Household enterprises in Sub-Saharan Africa: Why they matter for growth, jobs, and livelihoods, The World Bank, 2012.
- Who creates jobs? Small vs. large vs young, John Haltiwanger et al., 2011.
- Small vs young firms across the globe: Contribution to employment, job creation, growth, The World Bank, 2011.
Job quality: promoting ‘decent work’ and productive employment
- SDC e&i network resources on social aspects of work
- The Business Case for Quality Jobs – Evidence from Better Work, ILO and IFC, 2014.
- Informal Workers in Global Horticulture and Commodities Value Chains. Literature review, WIEGO, 2013.
- The quality of employment and decent work: definitions, methodologies and ongoing debates, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 2013.
- Guidance on how to promote decent rural employment in FAO country activities. Second edition, FAO, 2010.
- Decent work and poverty eradication: A literature review and two-country study, Ergon, 2010.
- Beyond the employment/ unemployment dichotomy: Measuring the Quality of Employment in Low Income Countries, ILO, 2007.
Interventions to support employment creation
Overviews and systematic reviews
- A Literature Review of Labour Market Impacts of Value Chain Interventions, LEI Wageningen UR, 2014.
- Interventions for employment creation in micro, small and medium sized enterprises. A systematic review, for KfW, 2014.
- A summary of the systematic review can be found in OECD DAC Evaluation Insights (May 2014): Creating Jobs in Small Businesses.
- Study on Existing Models for Productive Employment and Possible Models for Funding, Sida, 2013.
Practical tools for employment interventions
- Youth Employment page
- Small Enterprises page
- PSD in Conflict-Affected Environments
- Evidence Framework