- LED and Cluster Promotion
- Empirical research, LED/Cluster Programmes and case studies
- LED/ Cluster Programmes and case studies
- Methodologies, tools and training on LED and Cluster Promotion
- Critical perspectives on LED
- Useful resources
Local Economic Development (LED) is a strategy for promoting local economies as a way to fight poverty. LED programs often include elements of service market development and/or value chain development and vice versa. Cluster development refers to specific kind of LED strategies which focus on encouraging and supporting sectoral and geographic agglomerations of inter-connected companies, services and institutions. Support focuses on clusters that are considered to offer the most local economic development potential.
This page provides some key documents and links to information on LED and cluster promotion. Other relevant resources can be found in particular on the DCED Knowledge Page on Industrial Policy and the DCED Value Chains Database.
LED and Cluster Promotion
- Local and Regional Economic Development Toolkit, Mesopartner, 2014.
- LED Investment Actions: A Guidance Note for Local Government., Emma Wadi Hobson, 2011.
- Assessing and Starting a Local Economic Development Initiative. A Primer for USAID Field Staff, EGAT/UP and the Urban Institute, 2008.
- Local and Regional Economic Development. Towards a common framework for GTZ’s LRED interventions in South Africa, GTZ, 2007.
- Local Economic Development: A primer. Developing and Implementing Local Economic Development Strategies and Action Plans, The World Bank, 2006.
- Guidelines for cluster development. A handbook for practitioners, Maxwell Stamp for Croatia, 2013.
- The UNIDO approach to cluster development, UNIDO 2013.
- Competitive cities in the 21st century: Cluster-Based Local Economic Development, ADB, 2011.
- Industrial Clusters for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development in Africa: From survival to growth, The World Bank, 2011.
- Cluster Initiatives in Developing and Transition Economies, Center for Strategy and Competitiveness, Christian Ketels et al., 2006.
Empirical research, LED/Cluster Programmes and case studies
- Learning to compete: Brookings evidence paper series on understanding industrial clusters, 2014.
- When Agglomeration Theory meets Development Reality. Preliminary Lessons from Twenty World Bank Projects, Center for Global Development, 2015.
- Industrialization Pathways to Human Development:Industrial Clusters, Institutions and Multidimensional Poverty in Nigeria, Oyebanke Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, 2014.
- Productivity-enhancing manufacturing clusters: Evidence from Vietnam, UNU-WIDER Working Paper, 2014.
- Clustering, Competition and Spillover Effects; Evidence from Cambodia, UNU-WIDER Working Paper, 2014.
- Agglomeration economies and their effects on technical efficiency of manufacturing firms: Evidence from Pakistan, International Growth Centre Working Paper, 2013.
- Innovation performance and embeddedness in networks: evidence from the Ethiopian footwear cluster, World Development, Vol. 41, 2013.
- Government’s role in cluster development for MSEs: Lessons from Ethiopia, Merima Ali, 2012.
- What makes cities more competitive? Spatial determinants of Entrepreneurship in India, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 2012.
- Infrastructure and cluster development. A case study of handloom weavers in Ethiopia, IFPRI, 2012.
- Success factors in Micro and Small Enterprises Cluster Development: Case of Gullele Handloom Clusters in Ethiopia, HK Hailu, 2010.
- Local Economic Development in Polannurawa District, Sri Lanka, ILO, 2008.
LED/ Cluster Programmes and case studies
- Cluster and Network Development Case Studies, UNIDO, 2008-2012.
- Case studies of Local Economic Development, The World Bank.
- Managing Informality: Local government practices and approaches towards the informal economy – Learning examples from five African countries, SA LED Network and LEDNA, 2012.
- Radio programmes for Small Businesses. Using Media for Local Economic Development in Ghana, GIZ, 2012.
- Delivering Local Economic Development in Conflict Environments. The private sector promotion project in Nepal, in: Mesopartner PACA Newsletter, April 2010.
- Cluster Case Studies, Foundation for MSME Clusters, 2006.
- Local/Regional Economic Development in South Eastern Europe, GTZ, 2006.
- Clusters and Network Development. Examples and Lessons from UNIDO Experience, Giovanna Ceglie, 2001.
- Mesopartner LED and cluster promotion case studies (podcasts), including:
- LED in post recovery disaster areas (2009).
- Cluster Promotion at Western Cape Province, South Africa (2009).
- LED in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008).
- Business Development Committees in Nigeria (2008).
- UNIDO’s experience with cluster promotion (2008).
- Using radio in local development (2008).
- Training Councillors on LED (2008).
- Experiences with LED in South Eastern Europe (2007).
- Regional Economic Development in Central Java (2007).
- LED in a poor rural location in South Africa (2007).
- Participants’ report, Inter-agency conference on Local Economic Development, 22-24 October 2008, Turin.
Methodologies, tools and training on LED and Cluster Promotion
- Local and Regional Economic Development Toolkit, Mesopartner, 2014.
- Effective Monitoring for Pro-poor Cluster Development: Guidelines for Practitioners, UNIDO, 2012.
- Genesis. Scenarios, Strategies and Catalytic Projects. Strategising local and regional economic development:an overview, GIZ, 2009.
- Clusters for Competitiveness. A practical guide and policy implications for developing cluster initiatives, The World Bank, 2009.
- Participatory Appraisal of Competitive Advantage (PACA) Method (2008). (Podcast)
- Making Clusters work. UNIDO Methodology, UNIDO, 2006.
- Methodology. Development of SME Supplier Networks, UNIDO, 2005.
- Making Local Economic Development Strategies. A Trainer’s Manual, The World Bank and Cities of Change Initiative, 2004.
- Local Economic Development Tools. An Introduction for Municipalities and Local Economic Service Providers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the European Stability Initiative, 2002.
- Organizations offering training on LED include the ILO Turin Centre and mesopartner.
Critical perspectives on LED
Comparison of different LED approaches
- Reflections on PACA and Value Chains Development, in: Mesopartner PACA Newsletter, April 2006.
- Hindson, Doug (2007): The Local Business Environment and LED: Comparing Approaches, Mesopartner Working Paper
- Helmsing, A.H.J. (2001): Local Economic Development: New Generations of Actors, Policies and Instruments, Summary Report for the UNCDF Symposium on Decentralisation and Local Governance in Africa.
Comparative perspectives on LED and other private sector development approaches
- Planning or Doing Local Economic Development? Problems with the Orthodox Approach to LED, Shawn Cunningham and Joerg Meyer-Stamer, 2005.
- How do “Enabling Environment” and “Making Markets Work for the Poor” relate to LED and PACA?, Mesopartner Newsletter, 2005.