This page contains useful information and resources on policies and methodologies for results measurement, including in private sector development. It signposts to methodological papers on measuring results, from research institutes and development agencies.
The DCED’s own Standard for results measurement provides a practical framework, whereby programmes can measure their own results according to agreed good practice. Click here for the page dedicated to the DCED Standard for results measurement.
Results measurement methodologies for private sector development
They are categorised by cross-cutting methodologies and methodologies relating to value chain development, technical and vocational training, and business environment reform in particular. Some of them are very broad, implicitly leaving interpretation to the individual project; others are more specific. In particular, some (e.g. GTZ, IFAD, USAID) are based on the articulation of results chains, and are therefore similar in approach to the DCED Standard.
Measuring results in PSD (cross-cutting)
- ILO Lab (2017): A methodology for estimating the number of beneficiaries who have significantly improved the productivity of their employment
- Itad (2013) Review of M4P Evaluation Methods and Approaches
- Liz Turner and Laura Rovamaa (2012) Aid for Trade: Reviewing EC and DFID Monitoring and Evaluation Practices.
- Katalyst (2012): Poverty profiling using the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI), Katalyst Working Paper Series, March 2012.
- Hempel, Kevin and Fiala, Nathan. (2012) Measuring Success of Youth Livelihood Interventions. Washington, DC: Global Partnership for Youth Employment.
- GTZ. (2009) Measuring Employment Effects of Technical Cooperation Interventions: Some Methodological Guidelines.
- Creevey, Lucy. (2008) Common Problems in Impact Assessment Research, USAID Impact Assessment Primer Series, Washington, DC: USAID
- Woller, Gary. (2007) Developing a Causal Model for Private Sector Development Programmes. USAID Impact Assessment Primer Series, Washington, DC: USAID.
- Woller, Gary and Jeanne Downing. (2007) Causal Models as a Useful Programme Management Tool: Case Study of PROFIT Zambia, USAID Impact Assessment Primer Series, Washington, DC: USAID
- Creevey, Lucy and Don Snodgrass. (2006) Collecting and Using Data for Impact Assessment, USAID Impact Assessment Primer Series, Washington, DC: USAID
Measuring results in value chain development
Selected impact methodologies specific to value chain development; is listed below. For more agency methodologies in this field, please refer to the DCED Value Chains Database.
- Miehlbradt, Alexandra, and Conor Riggs (2012): Monitoring and results measurement in value chain development: 10 lessons from experience, The Value Initiative/SEEP.
- CARE (2012): Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation System Design for Value Chain Projects
- Thai-German Programme for Enterprise Competitiveness. (2008) Staff Guidelines for Impact Assessment.
- ILO. (2009) Value Chain Development for Decent Work, Chapter 6: Monitoring and Evaluation for Value Chain Development (6 MB)
- GTZ. (2007) Value Links Manual. Module 11: Monitoring and Managing Impact.
Measuring results in impact investing
- Impact investing: Measurement valued by investee businesses, DCED, 2017.
- Attribution in Results Measurement: Rationale and Hurdles for Impact Investors, DCED, 2017.
Measuring results in technical and vocational training
Measuring results in business environment reform
Methodological papers on measuring results
- Integrating Qualitative Methods into Investment Climate Impact Evaluations, World Bank Group, 2014
- White, Howard and Daniel Philipps (2012) Addressing attribution of cause and effect in small n impact evaluations: towards an integrated framework, 3ie Working Paper.
- DFID (2012) Review of the Use of Theory of Change in International Development, by Isabel Vogel
- Lant Pritchett, Salimah Samji and Jeffrey Hammer (2012) It’s All About MeE: Using Structured Experiential Learning (‘e’) to Crawl the Design Space, CID Working Paper No. 249.
- DFID (2012) Broadening the Range of Designs and Methods for Impact Evaluations, DFID Working Paper 38, by Elliott Stern et al.
- de Janvry, Alain, Andrew Dustan and Elisabeth Sadoulet. (2010) Recent Advances in Impact Analysis Methods for Ex-Post Impact Assessments of Agricultural Technology: Options for the CGIAR.
- White, Howard. (2011) An Introduction to the Use of Randomized Control Trials to Evaluate Development Interventions. 3ie Working Paper. New Delhi, India: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation.
- Bamberger, Michael, Vijayendra Rao and Michael Woolcock (2010): Using Mixed Methods in Monitoring and Evaluation Experiences from International Development, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.
- Vaessen, Jos. (2010) Challenges in impact evaluation of development interventions: opportunities and limitations for randomized experiments. Discussion Paper. Antwerp, Belgium: University of Antwerp.
- Leeuw, Frans and Jos Vaessen on behalf of the Network of Networks on Impact Evaluation (NONIE). (2009) Impact and Evaluation: NONIE Guidance. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.
- OECD-DAC. Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. Paris: OECD.
General agency policies and methodologies for results measurement
An overview of official member agency methodologies in results measurement, monitoring and evaluation can be found below.
- ADA. (2008) Guidelines for Evaluation in Austria’s Official Development Cooperation.
- AusAID / IFAD / Rockefeller / Netherlands site on Better Evaluation, 2013.
- CIDA. (2004) Evaluation Guide.
- Danida. (2006) Evaluation Guidelines.
- DFID. (2013) Evaluation Policy.
- Finland (2015). Results-Based Management in Finland’s Development Cooperation. Concepts and Guiding Principles.
- Norad. (2014) Can We Demonstrate the Difference that Norwegian Aid Makes?
- OECD. (2006) DAC Evaluation Quality Standards
- Sida. (2007) Evaluation Manual. Looking Back, Moving Forward.
- UNDP. (2007) Guidelines for an Assessment of Development Results
- UNIDO. (2006) Evaluation Policy
- USAID. (2010) Time To Learn: An Evaluation Strategy for Revitalised Foreign Assistance
- World Bank. (2006) Impact Evaluation and the Project Cycle
- World Bank. Methods and Techniques
The Foundation Center has compiled a list of tools and resources used by foundations and philanthropic organisations for assessing social impact. The list, including brief summaries of the tools and resources (and a page on the DCED Standard), is available here.