Care, 2014 – 32 pages
This document aims to address the increasing demand for clear guidance on how to practically and ethically monitor and mitigate GBV within non-emergency, international development programming, in which GBV is not a specific programmatic component. Specifically, it provides recommendations for preventing and/or responding to unintentional risk, threat, or violence against individuals related to programmatic interventions. These recommendations describe ways to take stock of the programmatic environment regarding GBV in general, as well as targeted suggestions on how to track GBV-related incidents and issues throughout the programme cycle.
USAID, 2014 – 82 pages
This practical toolkit describes and explains linkages between WEE and GBV. It offers background and practical guidance on how to address GBV in economic growth and trade projects across the programme cycle. The toolkit covers four overarching themes:
- How and why economic growth projects can play a critical role in addressing GBV.
- How GBV can affect and undermine the outcomes of economic growth projects.
- Different contexts to consider when integrating GBV prevention and response into economic growth projects.
- Practical ideas and strategies for integrating GBV prevention and response into economic growth projects.
Main takeaways include:
- Engage the technical support of a specialist in GBV prevention and response.
- Conduct gender analysis and GBV risk assessment to avoid harm.
- Elevate women and girls as leaders and agents of change in programming and policy.
- Engage men as allies in GBV prevention and response in projects intended for women’s economic advancement.
USAID, 2016 – 8 pages
This technical brief focuses on how to engage men in WEE programmes. It presents guidance on the effective engagement of men in programming to achieve WEE and gender equality outcomes in the agricultural sector using a market systems approach. The brief establishes five key considerations for this engagement:
- Help men identify and act as allies
- Address gender directly
- Work through cooperation, not only through isolation
- Amplify the influence of role models
- Do no harm
CDC, EBRD, and IFC, 2020 – 96 pages
Addressing GBVH in the private sector is a relatively new and complex area. This guidance note outlines emerging practices in addressing GBVH in operations, projects, and investments. These practices are drawn from recent experience in the private sector, as well as a larger body of work from the non-profit sector. The guidance is organised into seven sections:
- Addressing GBVH
- The business case for addressing GBVH
- Overarching principles in addressing GBVH
- Assessing GBVH risks, company capacity and resources
- Preventing GBVH and encouraging reporting
- Responding to reports of GBVH
- Monitoring GBVH
IFPRI and ILRI, 2013 – 4 pages
This study aimed to explore how BRAC’s “Targeting the Ultra Poor” programme affected intra-household dynamics in beneficiary households. It investigates men’s and women’s ownership of and control over various assets and roles in intra-household decision-making. It also aimed to understand men’s and women’s perceptions of these changes.
- The programme significantly increased household ownership of livestock. The largest rise was in livestock owned by women (including cattle, typically thought to be “men’s assets”), with corresponding increases in women’s livestock control.
- It shifted women’s work inside the home and increased women’s workloads, reducing their mobility. However, women reported preferring this outcome to the stigma of working outside the home.
- The programme decreased women’s voices in a range of decisions. While their livestock ownership increased, women’s decision-making power over their income, purchases for themselves, and household budgeting were significantly reduced.
The World Bank, 2014 – 33 pages
The paper explores whether one of the largest programmes in the world for women’s empowerment and rural livelihoods, the Indira Kranti Patham in Andhra Pradesh, India, has had an impact on the economic and social wellbeing of households that participated in the programme. Research showed that there were several major impacts:
- First, the Indira Kranti Patham programme increased participants’ access to loans, which allowed them to accumulate some funds, invest in education, and increase total expenditures (for the poorest and poor).
- Women who participated in the programme had more freedom to go places and were less afraid to disagree with their husbands; the women participated more in village meetings and their children were slightly more likely to attend school.
- Programme participants were significantly more likely to benefit from various targeted government programmes, most important the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, but also midday meals in schools, hostels, and housing programmes. This was an important way in which the programme contributed to the improved well-being of participants.
IDRC, 2016 – 33 pages
This paper takes stock of what we know about women entrepreneurs, the barriers they face, the role of economic and social-cultural factors, what works in supporting women-owned businesses, and where the knowledge gaps are.
- Training programmes can work and have positive impacts on business behaviour, but longer-term and growth impacts are not easily found. In-depth and longer training and mentorship are likely to have larger impacts.
- While addressing constraints to financing is a key priority, finance on its own may not have a large impact on most women-owned businesses.
- Access to mobile phones and other technologies, similarly, is a necessary but not sufficient condition. Gender-specific applications can be critical; for example, to allow women to better manage the needs of both business and household investments.
- Women need the legal protection that business registration offers.
ILO, 2017 – 5 pages
The study was designed to test whether expanding access to capital via grants or loans would increase the profits of micro-enterprises owned by men or women and whether the ILO’s entrepreneurship training “Start and Improve Your Business” (SIYB) could further increase impacts. The gender of the programme recipient matters a lot for the impact they can obtain. Men benefit from the package of microloans and training, leading to a 54% increase in profits and similar effects on employment. Other types of assistance such as loans only, grants only, or the combination of grants and training do not lead to sustained impact for men. However, women realise no impact, whether they received loans, grants, training, or any combination of these. The results point to a recent observation by researchers: the success of programmes hinges on who has the power to utilise the interventions being offered. In Uganda, the gender of the person matters a lot for the success of the programme because men and women have different spheres of control and women are more exposed to family pressure.
Africa Growth Initiative at Brookings, 2019 – 9 pages
Current WEE interventions are not enough to overcome all obstacles facing female entrepreneurs. The emerging evidence from psychology and experimental economics on agency; mind-set, and leadership show that for successful interventions to be transformative, they need to move beyond basic access to financial and human capital and tackle central psychological, social, and skills constraints on women entrepreneurs.
Main implications for policy and practice:
- Providing business skills training is a basic step toward empowering women entrepreneurs, but to truly achieve transformative change, training programmes need to address deeper psychological and social constraints facing women.
- Similarly, financial access, while a basic step in WEE, cannot alone help grow subsistence enterprises owned by women who face multiple binding constraints.
- Finally, a clear measure of success is important.
MEDA, 2020 – 24 pages
This report outlines the key characteristics, influencing the environment, and needs of Women-Owned Businesses (WBEs) to support investors and business service providers in Africa to adopt a gender lens within their current practices and policies. This paper starts with a review summarizing the characteristics of WBEs and their enabling environment. It also describes key findings from the primary field research conducted on technical assistance and business support; financial support; and gender-specific considerations. Communalities found across WBEs:
- Limited access to resources including collateral and other sources of financing.
- Slow to moderate business growth orientation.
- Limited knowledge of financing options and financial management.
- If married and/or have children, added pressure of requiring spousal support and balancing childcare.
- Low self-confidence to grow their business and seek investment support.
- Risk-averse to investment and fast growth.
- Underestimate performance.
- Childcare & community responsibilities.